Friday, December 12, 2014

Sit down before you read this essay on "Women's Status in the Bible"

Here is the opening of this young woman's essay. My comments are in brackets.

Between cultures and continents there are varying degrees of gender stratification. Some cultures rely on nature or religion to justify the status of women in their society. The Holy Bible is an important religious text that is used to justify perceived differences between men and women. ["perceived differences"... not real differences?] An examination of women’s status in the Holy Bible can be divided into three areas of study: The Old Testament, the Gospels of Jesus, and the New Testament Epistles. In the Old Testament women are represented as inferior to men and are considered the property of men. [Inferior? Most of the women named in the Bible were of high social rank as the wives and daughters of ruler-priests.] With the coming of Jesus Christ a revolutionary new message was preached. Women and men are represented as equals before God and in the early Church. [Jesus' treatment of the women he interacted with stands in stark contrast to the treatment of women in the period of the Second Temple which was generally worse than during the time of Jesus' Habiru/Hebrew ancestors. The Church Fathers do not view men and women as equal in authority.] After the death of Christ new doctrine gradually reverted the role of women to the way it was before the time of Jesus. [This is historically inaccurate. The Justinian code elevated the status of women and provided special protections for them.] Both the Old Testament and the New Testament appeal to the authority of God and his messengers to support their constructed gender roles. ["Constructed gender roles?" Who constructed them? When were they constructed?] In both the Old and the New Testament the same God is used to justify different views on women. [What are these different views? Please specify the contradictions!] Although gender characteristics are often presented as being natural and integrally connected to sex, the changing status of women throughout the Holy Bible shows that people and not God construct gender.[Assuming gender has to do with human anatomy, body chemistry and psychological wiring, I am amazed that anyone could claim to have constructed gender.]

The Old Testament contains many passages that dictate the status of women. The very first book, Genesis, establishes women as inferior to men in creation and in social position. As a creation story the words of Genesis are sacred and are attributed directly to God. Although the first chapter of Genesis describes God as creating both the male and female at the same time, suggesting equality between the two, the second chapter says that man was made first and that woman was made from a part of man to be his helper. The term helper may be seen as suggesting either an equal or an inferior status for Eve. Her inferiority is firmly established in Genesis 3:16 when God discovers that she has eaten from the tree of knowledge.
In Genesis 3:15 God declares that the Woman will bring forth the Seed who will crush the Serpent's head, but in the next verse God declares her to have an inferior status. Wow!  Almost renders one speechless.
Related reading:  The Bible as the Woman's Story; Survey of Women in Genesis; Kushite Wives; The Daughters of Horite Priests; The Status of Women in Ancient Egypt and Arabia; Women Rulers in Ancient Israel

Tuesday, December 9, 2014

500,000 year engraved shell

A shell with a zig-zag pattern suggests that archaic humans were producing abstract symbols much earlier than originally thought. This shell found on Java in the late 1800s appears to have been carved half a million years ago by archaic humans.

Read more here and here.

The same pattern appears on the edge of the 77,000 year old red ochre stone found in the Blombos Cave in South Africa.

Among archaic populations the chief and his family were buried in red ochre dust, a symbol of blood ("Life is in the blood.") This practice was wide spread and evidently very ancient.

Related reading: Africa is Archaeologically Rich; Meat Consumption 3 Million Years Ago?; Blood and Crosses; Mining Blood?; Ethical Concerns of Archaic Communities

Sunday, November 16, 2014

Joseph and Judah as Instruments of Deliverance

Then Judah said to Israel his father, “Send the lad with me, and we will arise and go, that we may live and not die, both we and you and also our little ones. I myself will be surety for him; from my hand you shall require him. If I do not bring him back to you and set him before you, then let me bear the blame forever. For if we had not lingered, surely by now we would have returned this second time.”

And their father Israel said to them, “If it must be so, then do this: Take some of the best fruits of the land in your vessels and carry down a present for the man—a little balm and a little honey, spices and myrrh, pistachio nuts and almonds. Take double money in your hand, and take back in your hand the money that was returned in the mouth of your sacks; perhaps it was an oversight. Take your brother also, and arise, go back to the man. And may God Almighty give you mercy before the man, that he may release your other brother and Benjamin. If I am bereaved, I am bereaved!”
(Genesis 43:8-14)

Alice C. Linsley

Old Jacob struggled during an extended famine in Canaan to sustain his family. He sent his older sons to Egypt to buy provisions and there they encountered a powerful Egyptian who was their own brother Joseph. Joseph became an instrument of deliverance for his family.

Joseph married Asenath, daughter of the "priest of On" (Gen. 41:45).  Asenath's father was Putiphar or Potiphera. This is a title composed of the words pu and tifra. Putifra in ancient Egyptian means "this order" and likely relates to the order of Horite priests. The stela of Putiphar speaks of Putiphar as the "son of Horus, may He live forever."

On, called "Heliopolis" by the Greeks, was one of the most prestigious shrine cities of the archaic world. It was an Anu city. The pyramids of Giza, Saqqara and Abusir were aligned to the obelisk of Heliopolis. The Pharaoh held the title of "Ruler of Heliopolis" and his symbol was the scepter-hq. The scepter and the flail became the symbols of the Pharaoh's absolute authority.

Abraham's ancestors were Anu/Ainu. Asenath was related to Joseph, probably a patrilineal cousin. According to Genesis 41:50, she gave birth to two sons before the time of famine. Her first born son was named Manesseh and he would have been dedicated to (belonged to) the Heliopolis shrine, whereas Ephraim, the younger son, belonged to the House of Jacob. This explains why Jacob gave him the blessing that pertained to the first born (Gen. 48:14).

Manesseh and other Habiru/Hebrew clans related to the Horites of Egypt and Edom settled in the region of Galilee. The Horites of Nazareth constituted the sixteenth division of priests, the order of Hapi-tsets. The word is of Egyptian origin. Hapi is an ancient reference to the Nile. T-sets refers to the One who rules the wind, waves and currents (cf. Jesus' calming of the wind and waves on the Sea of Galilee.)

Judah's role

When Joseph's brothers discussed killing him (Gen. 37), it was Judah who came up with a suggestion that preserved Joseph's life, and it was Judah who offers to "be surety" for Benjamin's safe return to Jacob (Gen. 43).  Is it any wonder that Jacob grants a special blessing to this son? In the tribal lists, Judah is sometimes replaced by Ephraim and Manesseh, but Jacob's deathbed blessing of his sons favors Judah and Joseph above the others. Here is part of the blessing given to Judah: The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet [nor a lawgiver from his loins], until Shiloh comes, and to him shall be the obedience of the peoples. (Gen. 49:10)

This relates to Christ who is the long-expected Righteous Ruler and the Lawgiver because every law that comes from God is given through Him. He is a descendant of both Joseph and Judah. Judah had two wives, as was the custom for the Horite rulers. One was Shua, one of Jacob's daughters. She was Judah's first wife and his half-sister (as was Sarah to Abraham). By his two wives Judah had two firstborn sons: Er and Onan. Their names represent two Horite territories. Er (Ur) is the eastern territory of the Mesopotamian Horites in Ur, and Onan (Onn) is the western Horite territory centered at Heliopolis on the Nile. All of these Horites were ethnically Kushite.

"The scepter will not depart from Judah..." is generally taken to mean that the Messiah would come from Judah, but it is possible that it refers to a historical reality; namely, that some of Jesus' ancestors were never captives in Babylon. Jacob's holdings extended to Beersheba and the Babylonians were not interested in engaging warriors in the Negev.

One of the oldest shrines in the Negev has been found at Timnah where copper was mined from very ancient times. Some of the mines are at least 6000 years old. This was a Horite shrine as evidenced by the presence of a statue of Hathor, the mother of Horus and the patroness of metal workers. A temple dedicated to Hathor was discovered at the southwestern edge of Mt. Timnah by Professor Beno Rothenberg of Hebrew University.

The Chalcolithic metal works at Timnah were found at the Wadi Nehushtan in the foothills along the western fringe of the southern Arabah Valley. The smelting works, slag and flints at this site were found to be identical to those discovered near Beersheba where Abraham spent his old age. This is why Rothenberg concluded that the peoples living in the area were "partners not only in the work but in the worship of Hathor." (Timna, p. 183)

It is appears that Tamar was from this region. She bore Judah twin sons after refused to provide her another husband from among his sons. Judah praised her as "more righteous” than himself (Gen. 38:26) because she fulfilled the levirate marriage law. The younger of Tamar's two sons was Perez, an ancestor of Jesse of Bethlehem, David, and Jesus Christ.

Mary's Ancestry

Mary’s parents were Joachim and Anna. Joachim was a shepherd-priest of Bethlehem Ephrath. Throughout the Bible, Ephrath is a reference to Judah. His wife was Anna, a daughter of a priest. Hippolytus of Thebes records that Mary’s mother was one of three daughters of a priest named Matthan (Matthias/Mattai). The eldest sister, Mary, was the mother of Salome; the second sister, Sobe, was the mother of Elizabeth whose son was John the Baptist. The third sister was Anna, Mary’s mother. Elizabeth and Mary were cousins, and both were daughters of priests.

Herod the Great deposed the High Priest Matthias after the priest removed the Golden Eagle from the Temple. Matthias was the second to the last High Priest before the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD.  Matthias' father was the High Priest Theophilus, the brother-in-law of Joseph Caiaphas, the High Priest before whom Jesus appeared after his arrest. Theophilus' family was a ruler-priest family from Edom. They were descendants of Abraham and Seir the Horite (Gen. 36). The Horite ruler-priest lineage was very ancient and was recognized by Herod the Great who also was from Edom/Idumea.

The ancestral family of Jacob ben Mattat, once a favorite of Herod the Great, came to have limited influence with the House of Zadok, as this lineage of King David’s descendants appears to have been increasingly ostracized after Herod's death in 4 BC. In light of historical events, it appears that the ancestral scepter would have departed from Judah had the Christ not appeared when He did. With Christ's appearance the scepter passed to him, the eternal King. In 70 AD, the temple was destroyed as Jesus had predicted and the solemn ceremonies, as well as the blasphemies, ceased. Jesus came out from the temple and was going away when His disciples came up to point out the temple buildings to Him. And He said to them, "Do you not see all these things? Truly I say to you, not one stone here will be left upon another, which will not be torn down." (Matt. 24:1-2)

Related reading: The Enigma of Joseph; The Significance of Galilee in Matthew's Gospel; The Nazareth-Egypt Connection; The Moral Code of Ani

Sunday, November 9, 2014

Saving Noah

Did Noah's ship land here? 
Ar-meni or Har-meni means Mountain of Menes.
Har-mini or Er-mune means Mountain of the Moon.

Noah and the Voice of Silence
July 2014 presentation by David Robbins given at the annual conference of the American Scientific Affiliation in Hamilton, Ontario.


"Genesis portrays a global flood covering the highest mountains and destroying every living land creature. Geological discoveries undercut the premise well over a century ago. Nor is there evidence from scientific fields, and no indisputable Ark evidence is known. Is “Noah” just a story, or is another view possible? Catastrophes affecting PPN and Neolithic peoples in the Holocene are not a good match. Given that civilization development in the Fertile Crescent seems continuous, historical floods seem local or regional. Headline discoveries of Burckle Crater and Madagascar chevrons spurred speculation of mega-tsunamis and Flood connections. But Oman is an effective barrier, and Holocene sediments in Iraq lack tsunami deposits and glauconite. Translation of ancient Sumerian texts and discovery of ancient flood sediments provide compelling parallels to Genesis given license for ancient editorial errors or paradigms. A major flood inundated ancient Shuruppak, between the Euphrates and Tigris, around 2900 BC. Records link Noah, and ancient epics say he floated down the Euphrates on a barge as far as modern-day Bahrain, a distance of ~450 miles. Considering clustered, worldwide flood and fire catastrophe “myths” and an Indian Ocean meteor strike contributing rain possibly co-occurring with flood deposits, the real story of Noah may be emerging. The picture is not complete. Noah has been both revered and disparaged with tension between biblical teaching and the known world. But the Noahdic lessons of righteousness, judgment, and mercy are central to the Christian faith and instructional to a sinful world. A reconciling voice encourages seeking."--David Robbins

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Alice C. Linsley

Noah escaped the flood of his era only to be drowned by modern speculation. This scientist concludes that the scientific evidence does not align with the Biblical data. That is because he has failed to take the Biblical data as his starting point. Had he begun with the assumption that Genesis 4, 5, and 10 contain accurate information, he would have to accept that Nimrod was a son of Kush. Kush is the Nile Valley. That is where Nimrod's ancestors lived during the Neolithic Subpluvial (African Humid Period), and that is where Noah lived in the region of Lake Chad.

Further, there is only one place on the surface of the earth where the people claim the land to be that of Noah, that is Borno (meaning "Land of Noah") in the region of Lake Chad. Climate studies and anthropological studies of the rulers of this region confirm a time of flooding. It is also known that Proto-Saharan rulers kept personal menageries, as Noah did. The oldest known zoological collection was found during the 2009 excavations at Nekhen on the Nile. The royal menagerie dates to about 3500 BC and included hippos, elephants, baboons and wildcats. Noah likely kept a menagerie which he would have protected in the time of flood.

At the time Noah lived, Nilotic rulers were building large boats out of גפר (gofer/gopher) wood, as described in Genesis 6:4. The word gofer refers to reeds and is used in reference to the basket made by Moses mother (Exodus 2:3). The Schocken Bible reads: "Make yourself an Ark of gofer wood, with reeds make the Ark...", Vol. I, p. 35. Noah's boat probably looked like this.

Before Noah, one of his ancestors Cain married the daughter of a Proto-Saharan ruler named Enoch/Anock. Cain established his territory in the region of Nod. Nod (נוד) and Nok (נוך) are virtually identical in the Hebrew and are related to the words Enock/Anock/Anakim/Anu/Hanoch. Cain was a sent-away son who went to the territory of Nod/Enoch which was "east" or "quimat" of Eden. Quimat is not a Hebrew word. The word is qma and it means place of bulrushes in Ancient Egyptian. This suggests the Nile, the same place where Moses was hidden by his mother among the bulrushes.

When we look in the right place geographically, the data of science and the data of Scripture align perfectly.

Tuesday, November 4, 2014

For Your Information

I delete comments that use the "B- - - -" and F- - -  words. I delete comments that are not related to the topic.

I delete comments that suggest an irrational mind. I delete comments from people who simply want to rant and offer nothing constructive to the conversation.

I make no apologies for the research here. It is an on-going project and I adjust as new information becomes available.

I accept responsibility for posts from 6 and 7 years ago that are not up to my present standard. I hope to revisit and improve them after I retire.

Finally, I thank the many readers who have stuck with me in this project and offered thoughtful comments and helpful feedback. God bless you!

Alice C. Linsley

Related reading: The Apostle Paul: Rules for Blogging; Thoughts on Blogging; Alice C. Linsley's Research on Genesis

Wednesday, October 22, 2014

Biblical Evidence of an Old Earth

Alice C. Linsley

As discussed in Evidence of an Old Earth - Part 1, the Bible reveals a gap of time between the first created humans, represented by Adam and Eve, and the first rulers listed in Genesis 4 (Cain's line) and Genesis 5 (Seth's line). If Adam and Eve were created around 4 million years ago, and Cain and Seth lived around 3500 BC, that gap involves millions of years.

The age of the Earth is estimated at 4 billion years. The first archaic humans appeared suddenly on the Earth about 3.8 million years ago. The rulers of Genesis 4 (Cains' line) and Genesis 5 (Seth's line) lived during the Holocene Wet Period (the Neolithic Subpluvial) between 7500 and 3000 BC.

In Evidence for an Old Earth - Part 2, I presented but a very small portion of the evidence from archaeology and paleontology for the presence of humans of the Earth from 160,000+ years ago. (For more on this, see "Facts About Human Origins.")

It is clear from scientific analysis of the "begats" in Genesis 4 and 5 that these lists represent established royal lines that practiced endogamy (marriage between the lines). The lines of Cain and Seth intermarried according to a distinctive pattern involving two wives, as shown in the diagram below. This pattern can be traced throughout the Bible, so that there is no doubt that Jesus is a direct descendant of these early rulers.

Lamech Segment Analysis: Genesis 4 and Genesis 5
© 1998 Alice C. Linsley

Explanation of Symbols
O Female
Δ Male
= Marriage
/ Line of descent
_ Siblings

Note that Lamech's daughter Naamah married her patrilineal cousin Methuselah and named their first born son Lamech, after her father. This is called the "cousin bride's naming prerogative." This feature identifies the ruler-priests lines of the Bible, making it possible to trace the ancestry of Abraham, Moses, Samuel, David and Jesus back to these earliest Biblical rulers.

The oldest named rulers were Nilo-Saharan and Sahara-Nubian. Because this is so, often it is necessary to investigate these peoples and their languages and practices to understand very old material in the Bible. Consider the first three words of the Ten Commandments are: Anochi, Havayah Elohecha, meaning "I am God, your Ruler." The Talmud (Shabbat 105a) questions the word anochi (I) because it is an unusual form of the pronoun, as opposed to the more commonly used ani. The point of origin of this unusual pronoun is the Nile Valley. In the ancient Egyptian language anochi refers to the royal first person.

Hebrew does not have the letter V (see chart.) However the letter V, which appears in other Biblical words, is found in the Nilotic languages such as ancient Egyptian and Luo. An example is Havilah (Gen. 2:11), which refers to a region in the Upper Nile Valley. This is further evidence that the words Anochi Havayah are not originally Hebrew.

The word anochi is found among other African peoples also. Among the Igbo, anochie means “a replacer” or “to replace” and among the Ashante anokyi means "Ano Junior." In both cases, one finds the idea of succession from father to son, suggesting a royal line. A Nigerian reports that "anochie means 'direct heir to a throne'." The words Anoch and Enoch are clearly associated with royal ascendancy. They may also be related to the Biblical word Anakim (Gen. 23:2).

Cain married his patrilineal cousin, a daughter of Enoch. Enoch is a royal title and means "heir to the throne." Cain married into a royal house, a family to which he was related. Adam is the representative of the whole of created humanity in the Bible, but Enoch is the representative of the oldest known line of kings in the Bible. That may be why these two are paralleled in Psalm 8:4: What is man (Enoch) that you spare a thought for him, or the son of Man (ben' adam) that you care for him?

Cain and Seth were great rulers in Africa. Cain's territory probably extended between Kano and Nok in modern Nigeria. Seth or Seti is a name found among the ancient Nilotic rulers. Ta-Seti was one of 42 administrative divisions (nomes) along the Nile and is the earliest Nubian Kingdom, dating to 5,900 BC. So Cain and Seth were African rulers whose lines intermarried.

Further, as is evident from the diagram below, both rulers married daughters of another African royal house.

Again we find the cousin bride's naming prerogative. Cain and Seth married the daughters of Enoch, a royal title. Those daughters named their first born sons after their father. Clearly, Cain and Seth are not the literal sons of Adam and Eve, but rather their distant royal descendants.

Cain is also a royal title. The following words are related to the word Cain or Kain: King, Khan, Kandake (Candance in English Bibles), and the Greek for hunter - κυνηγος (kinigos). The kings of the archaic world were great hunters, like Nimrod, "a mighty hunter before the Lord" (Gen. 10:9). These "mighty men of old" are also called "nephilim" which comes from npyl in Aramaic, meaning "great one" and is equivalent to nfy in Arabic, meaning hunter.

By the time of Jude's epistle (c. 68 AD), Cain was solidly established as the archetype of an earthly ruler. Jude warns those who might abandon Christ because God punishes those who rebel against Him. He uses three men as examples: Cain, the ruler, Balaam, the prophet, and Korah, the priest. These were the three most sacred offices among Abraham’s people and often they were filled by people corrupted by the world.

Related reading: The Genesis "Begats" Speak of Archaic Rulers, Jesus Christ; The Dispersion of Abraham's Kushite Ancestors; Kushite and Horite Rulers Linked; A Scientific Timeline of Genesis; On Gaps and Overlaps; Evidence of an Old Earth - Part 1; Evidence of an Old Earth - Part 2; Sodom, Gomorrah, and the Seismic History of the Dead Sea: Support for Biblical History – Yes! Support for a Young Earth – No!

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Evidence of an Old Earth - Part 2

Alice C. Linsley

Evidence of an Old Earth - Part 1 explores how Young-Earth Creationism fails to align with the information found in Genesis. Young-Earth Creationism also fails to align with information in the various sciences. The discrepancy between the Young Earth interpretation and the evidence of the sciences is so great that many have the impression that Christianity and the sciences are in conflict. Truly, there is no conflict. The evidence from the sciences aligns quite well with the details given in Scripture.

Dispersion of peoples

Genesis 10 describes the dispersion of peoples that took place between 10,000 and 5,000 years ago. DNA studies have confirmed the dispersion of these Kushite peoples out of Africa. The Kushites ruled the ancient world for 7000 years according to Vedic (ancient Hindu) sources. Genesis 6:4 calls these rulers the "mighty men of old."

Abraham's ancestors named in Genesis 10 and 11 were ethnically Kushite. One of those ancestors was Nimrod whose kingdom was in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. The language of his kingdom was Akkadian, an Afro-Asiatic language. The Akkadian lexicon (vocabulary) is more African than Asiatic.

Archaic humans were widely dispersed long before the Kushite dispersion described in Genesis 10. A 2013 report in Nature showed this map with the location of Middle Pleistocene fossils in Northern Spain (shown in yellow), Denisovan finds (blue), and Late Pleistocene Neanderthal finds (red). Ancient DNA has been recovered from fossils at these sites.

The populations shown on the map lived at least 50,000 years ago, and there are still older human populations. The ancestors of the Chinese came from Africa about 80,000 years ago.

On the Arabian Peninsula, the Qafzeh population used tools 125,000 years ago at Jebel Faya. These people likely came into Arabia from Africa.  The migration of peoples out of Africa begin between 120,000 and 100,000 years ago. Subsequent migrations were caused by climate change, especially as the Saharan began to dry out. The most recent migration of peoples from Africa took place around 6000 years ago into AnatoliaBactria, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria.

The dispersal of human populations is confirmed by comparative linguistics. A 2013 report on phonemes (distinct units of sound) in 500 languages traces them back to a prehistoric mother tongue in Africa spoken at least 100,000 years ago.

Scientists have found that every language can be traced back to a long-forgotten dialect spoken by our Stone Age ancestors in Africa

Scientists have found that every language can be traced back to a long-forgotten dialect spoken by our Stone Age ancestors in Africa. The further away from the point of origin of the mother tongue, the fewer phonemes from that language survive. English, which developed from German, preserves many of the phonemes of the reconstructed prehistoric language.

Notice the area through which the peoples of Africa entered the Arabian Peninsula. Genesis tells us that this area was populated by Abraham's ancestors, including the clans of Dedan, Sheba, Raamah, and Joktan. The Joktanite clans still inhabit Southern Arabia.

Human artifacts

Human artifacts also testify to an old Earth. Ostrich eggshell fragments, dating to 60,000 years ago, have been hailed as the oldest example of symbolic written communication. The unusually large sample of 270 engraved eggshells were mostly excavated at Diepkloof Rock Shelter in South Africa.

The Ishango bone (shown below) is a bone tool, dated to about 25,000 years ago. It is a dark brown length of bone, the fibula of a baboon, with a sharp piece of quartz affixed to one end, perhaps for engraving. The fossil has three rows of tally marks along its length. It may have been used to multiply or as a calendar.
Ishango Bone

Humans made reed mattresses 77,000 years ago in South Africa. That is where the oldest mattress— made from compacted grasses and leafy plants— was found at Sibudu Cave in KwaZulu-Natal. In this same region a stone carving of a python has been found that dates to 70,000 years.

There is the evidence of mining in South Africa between 80,000 to 100,000 years ago. These are major mining operations that included quarries and tunnels. It is estimated that a million kilos of red ocher ore was excavated from several mines. At one mine half a million stone-digging tools were found. The red ocher was ground to power and was used globally to bury rulers. Anthropologists agree that the red ocher symbolized blood and suggests that the people believed in life after death. The practice may have been connected to the hope or expectation that the ruler might rise from the dead and lead his people to immortality.

Burial sites and even ancient cemetaries reveal that archaic peoples practiced ritual burial. The use of red ocher in burial was widespread in prehistoric times. It indicates that archaic peoples believed in life after death. A man buried 45,000 years ago at La Chapelle-aux-Saints in southern France, was packed in red ocher.

The "Red Lady" of Paviland in Wales was buried in red ocher about 20,000 years ago. Her skeletal remains and burial artifacts are encrusted with the red ore.

The ‘Fox Lady’ of Doini Vestonice, Czechoslovakia (near Russia) who was buried 23,000 years ago, was covered in red ocher.

A 20,000 year old burial site in Bavaria reveals a thirty-year-old man entirely surrounded by a pile of mammoth tusks and nearly submerged in a mass of red ocher.

In the La Braña-Arintero cave in the Cantabrian Mountains of Spain, 7000 year old skeletons were discovered in 2006. The bodies were covered with red ocher.

Two flexed burials were found in Mehrgarh, Pakistan with a covering of red ocher on the bodies. These date from about 5000 BC. All of these burials predate the time calculated by Young-Earth creationists for the creation of the world.

Paul Sereno unearthed 10,000 year old skeletons at Gobero in Niger. These were buried on the edge of a paleolake on the northwestern rim of the Chad Basin. The Gobero site is the earliest known cemetery in the Sahara and the skeletons found there indicate that some individuals were at least 6 feet tall.

Gobero skeleton (G3B8) measures 6 feet 6 inches
Photo (c) Mike Hettwer, courtesy Project Exploration

At the time of the Gobero populations (9700-4400 years ago), humans were dispersed globally, and these populations were not destroyed by a worldwide flood. Consider the following population estimates by urban center between 2400 and 2200 BC, the time when Noah's flood would have occurred:

Memphis, Egypt - 32,000 inhabitants

Lagash, Iraq - 60,000 inhabitants

Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan - 40,000 inhabitants

Mari, Syria -50,000 inhabitants

Baodun settlements, China - Baodun is the largest settlement, covering an area of about 373 miles. There is no evidence of destruction by flooding though all six Baodun settlements straddled the Min River in central Sichuan province. The Min is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River.

The Natufians populated an area that includes Palestine, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon between 15,000 and 9,000 years ago.The British archaeologist Dorothy Gerrod coined the term "Natufian" because the remains she studied were found in a cave at Wadi an-Natuf in Palestine.

The Pengtoushan culture thrived along the Yangtze River between 7500–6100 B.C., and the Yangshao culture flourished along the central Yellow River between 5000 and 3000 B.C. Yangshao nobles wore silk garments.

There is no evidence that any of these peoples were wiped out by a worldwide flood. The evidence simply does not support the interpretation that all the peoples of the earth were destroyed in a catastrophic global flood and that the earth was repopulated by Noah's descendants. What we have in Genesis is a description of Noah as a Nilo-Saharan ruler in the region of Lake Chad during the African Humid Period. The region was already wet and apparently is was inundated after a prolonged monsoonal season. From Noah's perspective, the whole world was under water.

8000 year old dugout found in the Sahara

About 4000 years before Noah people were using dugouts to navigate the rivers of the Sahara. This is attested by the discovery of an 8000 year old dugout in Dufuna in the Upper Yobe Valley along the Komadugu Guna River in Northern Nigeria (shown above). This general region was much wetter at the time that Cain, Seth and Noah ruled there. Many of the major waters systems were connected so that it was possible to travel between the Atlantic coast and the Nile River.

African Sheer Zone where rifting caused waters to collect
along a line from the Atlantic to the Nile.

Noah was a ruler

The Nilotic rulers kept personal menageries.  In his private zoo in Nubia, Akhenaten kept lions in domed buildings, antelopes in pens, and cattle in an enclosure made of sticks and branches. Before his time, the rulers of the Horite shrine city of Nekhen kept menageries and provided royal burials for the animals that died (see image below).

Baboon buried 3,500 years ago at Nekhen
National Geographic

Nekhen has more animal burials than any early Nile Valley urban center. Noah was related to the rulers at Nekhen. It is likely that Noah, as a ruler, had his own menagerie. So the account of Noah saving animals aligns very well with the archaeological and anthropological evidence.

Scientific analysis of the marriage and ascendancy pattern revealed in Genesis 4 and 5 makes it clear that Cain and his brother Seth lived when there were human settlements along major rivers, boat building, fishing and hunting, tool production, textiles, pottery, religious traditions, such as animal sacrifice, ruling families, and an established pattern for marriage among the ruling houses. Nilotic rulers were building pyramids at the time that Cain lived.