Friday, May 22, 2015

A Flawed Paradigm

Archaic humans were producing abstract symbols much earlier than originally thought. This shell found on Java in the late 1800s was carved half a million years ago by archaic humans. The zig-zag pattern is like that found on stone carvings in Africa. The pattern appears on the edge of the 77,000 year old red ochre stone found in the Blombos Cave in South Africa (image below).

Once again, Darwinians are snagged on their flawed paradigm. Darn those archaic humans! They keep throwing a wrench in the common ancestry theory. These folks apparently don't accept a basic principle of science: that a substantial body of empirical evidence should cause us to reconsider a flawed model of human origins.

Stone tools older than man found: Were our ancient ancestors already toolmakers before evolving into humans?

Stone tools that are older than man have been found — suggesting that our ancient ancestors were already skilled toolmakers before they evolved into humans.

In a discovery which could rewrite the history books, archaeologists working in north-western Kenya found sharp cutting tools which date to 700,000 years before the first members of the genus homo emerged.

Read the full report here.

Tuesday, May 12, 2015

The Re-Horus-Hathor Narrative

David Dickens: I was going to ask you about non-Biblical Horite/Proto-Saharan texts. You've talked about a lot of how Genesis lines up with the culture and some of archaeological work in Africa, but I was wondering if there are other sources of narrative. I'm looking for the Nilo-Saharan equivalent of Beowulf, I suppose.

Alice Linsley: The Horus-Set narrative is much older, of course. Horus, as the son of the Creator, comes to vanquish Set and sames the kingdom for the Creator God/High King. Not quite the same elements as in Beowulf. Set means bow (as in bow and arrows), and the land of Nubia was called Ta-Seti, the "land of the bow." This narrative dates to around 5000 BC.

David:  At least that gives me a good place to start. I've seen a lot of anti-Horus propaganda lately whereas I'm perfectly happy with a typological interpretation of the Horus myths. (But then I'm no expert so my opinion is no better than most of the critics.)

Alice: There is much ignorance about Horus. Also, a great deal of nonsense on the internet about ancient Egyptian beliefs and magic. You might find this piece helpful: Ha'piru, Ha'biru, 'Apiru or Hebrew?

David: There's certainly all the pieces there, but the narrative is missing. I can read the first few chapters of Genesis, Ramayana, Epic of Gilgamesh, legends of the Eight Immortals, Beowulf... there are so many ancient stories (some with meticulous detail, but all with unifying themes) but there doesn't seem to be one for Horus or the Ha'biru peoples. It seems almost all we have is archeological evidence and some descriptions from ancient historians.

Alice:  The Bible is the narrative of the Ha'biru. It is the only consistent source of the Righteous Ruler narrative. Unfortunately, the last editorial hand - the Deuteronomist Historian - marred the narrative by imposing post-exilic Zionism on the older narrative.

David:  So nothing extra-Biblical remains of the myths and legends of a people who touched three continents, spanned thousands of years and had a hand in every ancient civilization in the eastern hemisphere? I just doesn't sound right.

I'm not saying the Bible isn't the bees-knees, I'm just surprised that its all that remains (besides a few hieroglyphs on some temple wall).

Alice: Oh, there is much that pertains to the narrative outside the Bible. The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts provide a great deal of information about Horus, the son of Re. The righteous rulers who were buried in the half dozen pyramids in question hoped for bodily resurrection and their hope rested in Horus who was pierced in the side, died, and risen from the dead on the third day.

David: I'll have to hunt them down then. I've never seen that sort of collection.

Alice. I own the Faulkner volume and make reference to it often. As an anthropologist I am aware of the dangers of constructing parallels without substantial evidence from all of these disciplines. I have no interest in exaggerating trifling resemblances. My first impulse is to regard the apparent similarities between Horus and Jesus Christ as yet another example of parallelomania. This is the initial reaction of most Christians until the evidence is set before them that Horus is very likely the basis of Messianic expectation.

The Horite expectation that the Righteous Son would not remain in the grave is expressed in Psalm 16:10: For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.

My assertion that the Ra-Horus-Hathor story from the ancient Nile Valley is a form of the Proto-Gospel has been labeled as an example of parallelomania. Such a claim reveals ignorance of what I have written. The Christ is not a human invention patterned on the Horus myth. Horus is the pattern by which the Horites came to expect a divine Son who would rule (a Messiah), and Jesus Christ is the only figure of history who fits the pattern.

Further, Jesus is a direct descendant of the Horite ruler-priests, some of whom lived in Bethlehem and others of whom lived in Nazareth.  Jesus' Horite ancestry is demonstrated by the distinctive Horite marriage and ascendancy pattern as evident in scientific analysis of the Genesis King Lists. He is the "Seed" of the Woman, the long-expected Immortal Mortal who tramples down death and receives the eternal kingdom.

Hathor conceived Horus by divine overshadowing of the Sun, the emblem of Re.
The angel answered, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God." Luke 1:35

Hathor is shown at the Dendura Temple holding her newborn son in a manger or stable. The stable was constructed by the Horite priest Har-si-Atef. Atef was the crown worn by deified rulers. The Arabic word atef or atif means “kind.” The ruler who wore the atef crown was to embody kindness and he was to unite the peoples, as Horus unites the peoples of the Upper and Lower Nile. The rulers of the two regions wore different crown, but Horus was called "Horus of the Two Crowns" because he wore both.  This is what stands behind the account of Yeshua/Joshua, the priest, receiving the "crowns" in Zechariah 6:11: "Take the silver and gold, and make crowns, and set it upon the head of Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest..." Of course, "Yeshua" is the Hebrew for Jesus. Horus is the only mythological figure in ancient Egypt who was understood to be a man, and as a man he wears the two crowns.

Christianity is not an invented religion based on the Horus myth. It is a faith which receives the most ancient tradition known among humans, that which hopes for life beyond death through the agency of a divine ruler who overcomes the grave and leads his people to abundant life. The details of the narrative are extremely important. One such detail is the third-day resurrection described in Pyramid Texts Utterance 667: Oh Horus, this hour of the morning, of this third day is come, when thou surely passeth on to heaven, together with the stars, the imperishable stars.

Consider how Horus describes himself in the Coffin Texts (148):

I am Horus, the great Falcon upon the ramparts of the house of him of the hidden name. My flight has reached the horizon. I have passed by the gods of Nut. I have gone further than the gods of old. Even the most ancient bird could not equal my very first flight. I have removed my place beyond the powers of Set, the foe of my father Osiris. No other god could do what I have done. I have brought the ways of eternity to the twilight of the morning. I am unique in my flight. My wrath will be turned against the enemy of my father Osiris and I will put him beneath my feet in my name of ‘Red Cloak’. (Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt by R.T. Rundle Clark, p. 216)

Here we find the words of Psalm 110:1, a clear messianic reference: The Lord says to my Lord: “Sit at My right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”

Related reading: Who is Jesus?; The Urheimat of the Canaanite Y; Fundamentalism and Syncretism in Hebrew History; Ha'piru, Ha'biru, 'Apiru or Hebrew?; The Priests of Nazareth

Monday, May 11, 2015

Ha'biru, Ha'piru, 'Apiru, or Hebrew?

Alice C. Linsley

In the ancient Egyptian and Ugaritic languages the word "piru" meant house, shrine or temple. The O'piru were Sun temples. The Sun was the emblem of the Creator among the servants of the Sun temples, and these servants were called ha'piru, 'apiru or ha'biru (Hebrew).

There were various castes of people who worked at the east-facing O'piru. These included priests, metalworkers, leather workers or tanners (ta-hash), stone masons, vintners and warriors. By the second millenium B.C. the ha'piru were dispersed throughout the Nile Valley, the ancient Near East, along the Indus River Valley, and in parts of southern Europe along the major water systems. These occupations were in service to the deity and to the king who built the temple. The king often served as the high priest of the temple also. A seated statue that shows Ramses II in the leopard skin of a priest was found at the temple that he build near Cairo. The temple was found in a suburb of Cairo called Ain Shams. "Shams" is the Arabic word for Sun.

The deity to which the temple was dedicated was the deity to which the various Ha'biru were devoted. Abraham is called "Hebrew" (ha'biru) in Genesis 14:13, and as a ruler in Edom, he appears to have been a devotees of Horus. That is why the rulers of Edom are called "Horites" in Genesis 36. Abraham's territory was entirely in the region of Edom (Idumea). He controlled the expanse from Hebron to Beersheba. Sarah, his half-sister wife, lived in Hebron at the northern boundary of Edom.

The ha'piru devotees of Horus represent a very ancient lineage of castes. They can be traced back to at least 5500 B.C. to Abraham's Nilo-Saharan ancestors who were cattle herders. One of their shrines was a Nekhen on the Nile. The temple there is dedicated to Horus.

Another Horite shrine was Heliopolis. The Harris papyrus speaks of 'apriu of Re at Heliopolis, the shrine of the Sun. Joseph married into this royal priest line when he married Asenath, the daughter of the priest of On. On is Heliopolis.

The Horite priests of Heliopolis were known for their meticulous devotion to the Creator and his son, and for their sobriety and purity of life. Plutarch wrote that the “priests of the Sun at Heliopolis never carry wine into their temples, for they regard it as indecent for those who are devoted to the service of any god to indulge in the drinking of wine whilst they are under the immediate inspection of their Lord and King. The priests of the other deities are not so scrupulous in this respect, for they use it, though sparingly.”

Among Abraham's Nilo-Saharan ancestors, Hathor, the mother of Horus, conceived when she was "overshadowed" by the Sun, the emblem of Re. This is the origin of Messianic expectation. This very ancient narrative is the proto-Gospel, the fore-telling of the story of the Virgin Mary who conceived by divine overshadowing, as the Angel Gabriel explained.

The angel answered, “The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God."

Related reading: The Urheimat of the Canaanite Y; Giant Ancient Egyptian Sun Temple; Abraham's Ha'biru Ancestors; The Horite Ancestry of Jesus Christ

Thursday, May 7, 2015

Somewhere in Africa

Somewhere in Africa
(The Mitochondrial Eve)

From somewhere in East Africa
Came one woman

From her ancient flesh
& spirit she

Not accidental mutants,
Not offspring of some now
Extinct monkey.

One mother
Who held in her womb
All glorious genetic oceans
Of human earth

All lines converge within her:
The diversity of nations, lineage
Of kings, the destiny
Of time.

From this one mother
Flows all human

The vague nagging memory
Of a beauteous garden
Where she once

& spoke as a friend.

Her own children
Intended to heal all time,
To flourish in hard, sweat
Labored lands,

Become stained by blood
Of son upon son, sacrificed too
Soon, as a Lamb out
Of season.

Her heart’s travail, a sharp sword,
Both curse & mercy, a bitter
Illness & a cure


Despite a serpent’s arrogance
& the naked pride
Of propagated

Guided always
By the outpouring memory,
The conscious

Guiding cosmos,
Merciful, forever moving
Towards life returned,

Original strands of mitochondrial DNA
Pass unbroken in providential
Planned order,

Sent as secret genetic coding
Through red-soil sons
Of Noah’s

Kingdom makers,
Race shapers, most ancient
Line of ruler-priests,

Of each hued people;
Made of one forgotten kin
From one maternal

From before time, an unforgotten mother,
Saved in time by her own Creator;
Firstborn; Pre-existent; both
Made & Unmade;
Fully Human;

Her own distant son, the Lamb
Come at last, born, scorned
& Crucified, risen again
To take her very

In full Love,
He finally knits her fall
Tying her back to the strong
Threads of heaven.

Her deepest longings,
Returning them safe again
To the Holy garden

Where she now lives:
                                                & Redeemed.

Matushka Elizabeth Perdomo

Monday, May 4, 2015

Is Scientific Dating of Fossils Reliable?

This faux amphibolite formation, found at Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt in northern Quebec, 
may be  a portion of Earth's primordial crust. It dates to 4.28 billion years ago.
Credit: Don Francis

Alice C. Linsley

I am often asked if carbon 14 dating is reliable. People who make a habit of distrusting science point to this one method and claim that it is flawed. They seem unaware that there are many methods by which to date rocks and fossils and that carbon dating techniques are continuously refined.

Even if C14 dating is wrong by 50%, we still have thousands of human artifacts that are 20 to 50 thousand years old. How can this be if the Earth is only 6000 years old? Obviously, the young earth theory has many flaws, not the least of which is the perpetuation of the idea that the Genesis creation accounts must be taken literally and Ussher's calculations using the Genesis King Lists can be used to establish the age of the earth.

Carbon 14

Fossils and rocks are dated by chemical means that rely on carbon dating which has a variance due to climate changes. Radiocarbon is continuously produced in the upper atmosphere at fairly constant levels. The radiocarbon from the atmosphere is incorporated into all living organisms on earth. Once the organisms die, the radioactive isotope decays at a known rate, so by measuring the radiocarbon levels remaining in samples scientists can work out how old things are. In the past this was done by burning a small sample of the object. Today there is a better method involving plasma oxidation chambers used to oxidize the object’s surface. This slower method does less damage to the artifact.

When molten rock cools radioactive atoms are trapped inside the igneous rock. Afterwards, the atoms decay at a predictable rate. By measuring the quantity of unstable atoms left in a rock and comparing it to the quantity of stable daughter atoms in the rock, scientists can estimate the amount of time that has passed since that rock formed.

Tree rings are also helpful in dating, but the atmospheric carbon from tree rings only goes back to about 13,000 years. That is why scientists were very excited about the sedimentary cores extracted from Lake Suigetsu in Japan. These cores extend back to 52,800- 60,000 years ago. Dating of climate changes is tracked through terrestrial core samples and also the Greenland ice cores.

With carbon dating scientists provide as accurate a range as possible. Something might be dated between 8,000 and 12,000 years old, for example. The range is because the initial amounts of radiocarbon in the environment incorporated into growing organisms vary slightly from year to year and between different parts of the carbon cycle worldwide.

Other Dating Methods

Besides radiometric dating, scientists have techniques for analyzing the breakdown of amino acids. This amino acid racemization dating method has been around since the early 1970s. 

Dating is also measured by changes in an object's magnetic field. When the magma from which igneous rocks form is still molten, iron-rich minerals can orient themselves in line with the local magnetic field in the same way that a compass needle does. As the magma cools, the iron crystals are frozen in their orientation in the solid rock. This provides a record of the orientation of the local magnetic field at that time. Paleomagnetics has identified 171 magnetic reversals in the last 76 million years. Geologists developed the paleomagnetic dating technique to measure the movements of the magnetic north pole over geologic time after World War II.

By using lasers researchers can measure parent and daughter atoms in extremely small amounts of matter. This technique is being refined by NASA for use in dating rocks on Mars. 

Another system of dating fossils is called “bracketing.” Fossils are generally found in sedimentary rock rather than igneous rock. Sedimentary rocks can be dated using radioactive carbon, but because carbon decays relatively quickly, this only works for fossils less than about 50,000 years. To date older fossils scientists look for layers of igneous rock or volcanic ash above and below the fossils. By dating these surrounding layers, they can establish the range.

This method requires understanding how the fossils are affected by geological events like rifts, erosion, folds, etc. which can disturb the layers. Scientists know what to look for to confirm dating and they give as accurate as possible ranges. A certain marine fossil may be dated to between 130,000 and 124,000 years and because it is a marine fossils, we know that the area where it was recovered was once a sea.

To determine the ages of human fossils that are millions of years, scientists need an isotope with a very long half-life. Isotopes used for this purpose are uranium-238, uranium-235, potassium-40, horium-232 and rubidium-87, all found in the human body. Each of these isotopes has a half-life of more than a million years.

The Science of Dating Scripture

Dating the Bible is as much a science as dating fossils and rocks. There are few methods that render absolute dates and scholars who study manuscripts likewise date material by giving ranges. One attempt to scientifically date the Pentateuch relies on a chronology established through synchronisms dated by astronomy. The ranges of time for the older Biblical material tend to be greater than for the more recent material. The dating of New Testament books cannot be set with absolute confidence so scholars often give a range, but the range is a matter of a few years or a decade, not a thousand years as is more often the case with the material in Genesis and Exodus. For example, the book of Romans is typically given a range of A.D. 56-58. In the dating of the books and events described in the Bible scholars rely on data found in the Bible and on extra-Biblical sources to help narrow the range. Archaeology, anthropology and linguistics have been especially helpful sciences in the service of Biblical scholarship.

Monday, April 20, 2015

1.5 Million Year Footprints in Kenya

Archaic human footprint found in Ileret, Kenya
Several sets provide evidence of males travelling in groups.

Archaic human footprints were found near a lake in Ileret, Kenya in the early 2000's. The 22 footprints were discovered in two sedimentary layers dated at 1.51 to 1.53 million years ago, providing the oldest evidence of an essentially modern human–like foot anatomy, with a relatively adducted hallux, medial longitudinal arch, and medial weight transfer before push-off.

The study appears here. The report focused on the anatomy of these footprints and found that these archaic humans ambulated like modern humans. Neil Roach returned to Ileret and found more footprints — about 100. The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the Paleoanthropology Society in San Francisco. These prints represent multiple individuals walking in one direction along a lakeside, possibly hunting for antelope or wildebeest.

Jeremy DeSilva's research showed that Australopithecus lacked the large grasping toe typical of tree climbers, and its spine, pelvis, knees, and ankles were made for walking on two legs. DeSilva compared the ankle joint, the tibia and the talus fossils of human ancestors ("hominins") between 4.12 million to 1.53 million years old, he discovered that all of the ankle joints resembled those of modern humans rather than those of apes. Chimpanzees flex their ankles 45 degrees from normal resting position. This makes it possible for apes to climb trees with great ease. While walking, humans flex their ankles a maximum of 20 degrees. The human ankle bones are quite distinct from those of apes

“Upright walking is such a unique way of moving,” says DeSilva, assistant professor of anthropology at Boston University. “If you look across the animal world, locomotion is so diverse: things fly, things swim. Moving on two legs is odd."

Humans are unique in so many ways.

This discovery of a complete fourth metatarsal of A. afarensis at Hadar shows the deep, flat base and tarsal facets that "imply that its midfoot had no ape-like midtarsal break. These features show that the A. afarensis foot was functionally like that of modern humans." The February 2011 report was written by Carol Ward, William H. Kimbel, and Donald C. Johanson. Johanson worked with Mary Leakey on other significant finds.

Johanson and Leakey were scheduled to speak at a Nobel Symposium in Sweden in May 1978. The conference honored Mary Leakey, who received a medal from the King of Sweden for her scientific investigations. Leakey was embarrassed when Donald C. Johanson announced that his Afar Triangle finds were ape, and included Mary Leakey's 4 million year old Laetoli specimen (jaw bone LH4) from Tanzania as an exhibit. Leakey would have classified her Laetoli finds as Homo/human. She expressed her regret that “the Laetoli fellow is now doomed to be called Australopithecus afarensis.”

Archaic human footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania 

Mary Leakey’s 1979 discoveries of footprints in Tanzania added to the evidence that humans walked the earth over 3 million years ago. At Laetoli, about 25 miles south of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, Leakey discovered footprints of a man, woman and child created about 3.6 million years ago and preserved under falling ash from the nearby Sadiman volcano. The raised arch and rounded heel of the footprints showed that whoever left these footprints walked as humans walk today.

There is a great deal of ego gratification in naming a "new" stage in human evolution, but analysis of all these footprints indicates that these creatures were fully human. From over 3 million years to the present, there was been a limited amount of physical changes in humans. Devotion to the theory of evolutionary branching of ape and human from a common ancestor is not supported by the data.

Monday, April 13, 2015

The Barren and Grieving Rejoice

Alice C. Linsley

So Sarah laughed to herself, saying,“After I am worn out, and my lord is old, shall I have pleasure?” The Lord said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh and say, ‘Shall I indeed bear a child, now that I am old?’Is anything too hard for the Lord? At the appointed time I will return to you, about this time next year, and Sarah shall have a son.” But Sarah denied it, saying, “I did not laugh,” for she was afraid. He said, “No, but you did laugh.”

This narrative comes after the arrival of the Three Person God (Baal Shalisha) before the destruction of Sodom (Gen. 18). Sara laughed when she heard that she would bring forth a son in her old age. Her laughter proceeds from the disbelief of a woman past child bearing years and is a natural response. The Lord's promise caused Abraham to laugh as well.

Then Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, and said in his heart, Shall a child be born to man who is one hundred years old? And shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear a child? (Gen. 17:17)

Sarah denied laughing because she was afraid. But the Lord presented her with the truth: "No, but you did laugh." Is it any wonder that the announcement of a promised son should make this old lady laugh? She had long before given up hope that she would bring forth Abraham's proper heir. Sarah's barren state would have been even more unbearable after Abraham took his second wife. Keturah bore Abraham six sons. Here we find echoes of the Rachel-Leah conflict, and the Hannah-Penninah conflict.

Abraham had other sons by Keturah, his cousin wife and by two concubines. However, none of these were his proper heir. The proper heir of a Horite ruler was the first born son of his half-sister wife, in this case, Sara. This is why Abraham complained to the Lord about not having a proper heir. This is the nature of Abraham's complaint, and one that the Lord God understood. Abraham was a ruler and the matter of a heir is especially important for the ruler. Isaac was Abraham's proper heir and he ruled over Abraham's territory in Edom.

When Isaac was born, Sara laughed again (Gen. 21:6). The basic sense of the verb that appears in the Hebrew is “to laugh.” The initial צְחֹק (in a rare participial form) refers to Sara's joyful laughter upon giving birth to a son. There is a suggestion that the word Sara is related to the African word saran, meaning joy. It may also be related to the word dara/daura, meaning laughter. The verb to laugh in the Chadic Hausa is dara. Dara and Sara may be regarded as cognates since the letters d and s are interchangeable in many African languages and in Dravidian.


The message of the promised son came to Sarah indirectly. She overheard this as part of a conversation between the divine visitors and her husband. Sara was not the direct recipient of the message. One the other hand, the Virgin Mary received the announcement of the Promised Son directly from the Angel Gabriel.

Announcements about promised sons appear throughout the Bible. Many of these center on the person of David. The Akkadian form of David is Da-odu, which corresponds to the Yoruba Daw-odu. Da means ruler and Odu refers to Edom. David had Edomite blood. He was a descendant of the Horite rulers to whom God first made the promise of the divine Son who would crush the serpent's head (Gen. 3:15). 

David was a descendant of the Horite rulers of Edom, one of whom was Abraham. Abraham's territory extended on a north-south axis between Hebron and Beersheba, and on an east-west axis between Engedi and Gerar. Note that both Hebron (where Sarah lived) and Beersheba (where Keturah lived) are in Idumea. Abraham's territory extended between the settlements of his two wives and was entirely in the region the Greeks called Idumea.

Hebron was called Kiriath-Arba. This suggests that this territory belonged to the Ar clans. Genesis 10 speaks of the Ar rulers of Tyre and Arvad. There appears to be a 3-clan confederation, consisting of Ar, Arvd and Arkt. The last two clans are called “Arvadites” and “Arkites” in Genesis 10:15-18. The late Dr. Catherine Acholonu connected the Ar of Canaan to the Aro of Nigeria. She wrote, "In Nigeria the caste under reference is the Ar/Aro caste of Igbo Eri priest-kings, who were highly militarized in their philosophy."

The Saharan Sara

The Sara constitute the largest people group in Chad. They make up to 30% of Chad's population. About a sixth of them are Christians and live in southern Chad. The Sara people include the Ngambaye, Mbaye, and Goulaye.

Sara society is organized by patrilineal descent from a common male ancestor. There is a 3-clan confederation such as characterizes Abraham's people. The qir ka are the eastern Sara, the qin ka are those living in central Chad, and the qel ka are the western groups. The Sara appear to be the descendants of an earlier 3-tribe confederation of warriors and kingdom builders. According to legend, there were giants among them. Were these the elohiym (deified rulers) who comprised the divine council spoken of in Genesis?

In ancient Chad and other parts of the green Sahara lived the Ariwa. They called their queen "Saraunia" and the word Sara is related to the word Daura. The Daura people preceded the Ariwa who are their grandsons. The Ar clans were known for keeping commercial records, and for their skill in metal and stone work. Jesus' kinsman Joseph was of the Ar line of Matthew. That is why he was called Joseph Ar-Mathea. He was a member of the Sanhedrin and an expert in mining and tomb construction. It was from Joseph's personal tomb that Jesus Christ rose and was received with great rejoicing and wonder as the Living Lord.